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# What’s The Difference Between Wiring Batteries in Series Vs. Parallel?

Understanding the difference between wiring batteries in series vs. parallel is critical if you have a multiple battery system. How you connect your batteries will determine how they perform in different applications. Let’s look closer at how to wire batteries in series vs. parallel and when each method is appropriate.

## What’s The Difference Between Wiring Batteries in Series Vs. Parallel?

The main difference in wiring batteries in series vs. parallel is the impact on the output voltage and the capacity of the battery system. Batteries wired in series will have their voltages added together. Batteries wired in parallel will have their capacities (measured in amp-hours) added together. However, the total available energy (measured in watt-hours) in both configurations is the same.

For example, wiring two 12-volt batteries with 100 Ah capacities in series will output 24 volts with a 100 Ah capacity. Wiring the same two batteries in parallel will output 12 volts with a 200 Ah capacity. Thus, both systems have a total available energy of 2400 watt-hours (watt-hours = volts x amp-hours).

Additionally, batteries wired in series and parallel configurations should all have the same voltage and capacity rating. Mixing and matching voltages and capacities can lead to problems that may damage your batteries.

## Wiring Batteries in Series

To wire multiple batteries in series, connect the positive terminal of each battery to the negative terminal of the next. Then, measure the system’s total output voltage between the negative terminal of the first battery and the positive terminal of the last battery in series. Let’s look at two examples to make this clear.

The first example is two 100 Ah batteries wired in series. As you can see, the positive terminal on the first battery is connected to the negative terminal on the second. Thus, the total system voltage is 24 volts, and the total capacity is 100 Ah.

The second example is wired the same way but with a third battery. The voltages of all three batteries add together, resulting in a system voltage of 36 volts, but the capacity remains at 100 Ah.

The power a device consumes is equal to its operating voltage multiplied by the current it draws. For example, a 360-watt device operating at 12 volts would draw 30 amps (12 x 30 = 360). That same device operating at 24 volts would only draw 15 amps (24 x 15 = 360).

Wiring batteries in series provides a higher system voltage which results in a lower system current. Less current means you can use thinner wiring and will suffer less voltage drop in the system.

In addition to power draw, charging works the same way. Consider an MPPT solar charge controller rated at 50amps. a 50A x 12V controller could only handle 600 watts of solar, but at 24Vx50A it could handle 1200 watts!

In general, operating larger power systems can see big benefits in running batteries in series at higher voltages.

In a battery system wired in series, you cannot get lower voltages off the battery bank without using a converter. Either all equipment needs to function at the higher voltage or an additional converter is needed to use 12V appliances on the system.

## Wiring Batteries in Parallel

To wire multiple batteries in parallel, you connect all of the positive terminals together and all of the negative terminals together. Since all of the positive and negative terminals are connected, you can measure the system output voltage across any two positive and negative battery terminals. Let’s look at two examples to make this clear.

The first example is two 100 Ah batteries wired in parallel. The positive terminal on the first battery is connected to the positive terminal on the second. Likewise, the negative terminals of both batteries are also connected. The total system voltage is 12 volts, and the total capacity is 200 Ah.

The second example is wired the same way but with a third battery. The capacities of all three batteries add together, resulting in a total capacity of 300 Ah at 12 volts.

The main advantage of wiring batteries in parallel is that you increase the available runtime of your system while maintaining the voltage. Since the amp-hour capacities are additive, two batteries in parallel double your runtime, three batteries triple it, and so on.

Another advantage to wiring batteries in parallel is that if one of your batteries dies or has an issue, the remaining batteries in the system can still provide power.

The main drawback to wiring batteries in parallel vs. series is that the system voltage will be lower, resulting in a higher current draw. Higher current means thicker cables and more voltage drop. Larger power appliances and generation are harder to operate and less efficient when operating at lower voltages.

## How Many Batteries Can You Wire In Series?

The limit on how many batteries you can wire in series typically depends on the battery and manufacturer. For example, Battle Born allows up to four of their lithium batteries to be wired in series to create a 48-volt system. Always check with your battery manufacturer to ensure you do not exceed their recommended limit of batteries in series.

## How Many Batteries Can You Wire In Parallel?

There is no limit to how many batteries you can wire in parallel. The more batteries you add in a parallel circuit, the more capacity and longer runtime you will have available. Keep in mind that the more batteries you have in parallel, the longer it will take to charge the system.

With very large parallel battery banks comes much higher current availability as well. This means the proper system fusing is critical to prevent accidental shorts that could have catastrophic consequences with so much current available.

## Can You Wire Batteries in Series and Parallel?

You cannot wire the same batteries in series and parallel as you would short the system, but you can wire sets of batteries in series and parallel to create a larger battery bank at a higher voltage.

The photo below wires two batteries in series to get 24V then that set is wired in parallel to another set of 24V batteries. Think of each set of series batteries as one battery. You must “create” another set of batteries equal to the voltage of the first to wire them in parallel.

Here is another graphic of our heated lithium batteries wired in a series-parallel configuration. This setup would yield a 24V 200AH bank. While the amp hour is smaller, the power is the same because of the higher voltage.

## Charging Batteries in Series Vs. Parallel

Besides making sure you have the correct voltage charger, batteries in series vs. parallel charge the same way. For batteries wired in series, connect the positive charger cable to the positive terminal on the first battery in series and the negative charger cable to the negative terminal on the last battery in the series. For even charge across a parallel bank, connect your charge in the same fashion: positive connect to first battery, and negative connected to last battery.

Optionally, a multi-bank battery charger may provide faster charge times for series and parallel battery banks. As always, refer to the manufacturer’s recommendation for the best way to charge your batteries.

Also be sure to read our article on Charging Lithium Batteries: The Basics.

## FAQ: Do Batteries Last Longer In Series Or Parallel?

Series connections provide a higher voltage which is slightly more efficient. This means that batteries wired in series can last marginally longer than batteries wired in parallel. However, batteries connected in series vs. parallel will provide roughly the same amount of runtime. Let’s take a look at a quick example that explains why this is true.

Two 12-volt batteries with a 100 Ah capacity are powering a 240-watt device. These two batteries wired in series will provide 24 volts and 100 Ah of capacity. The current draw of the device will be ten amps (24 x 10 = 240). The theoretical runtime of the series system is 100 Ah divided by ten amps, which is ten hours.

Conversely, the same two batteries in parallel provide 12-volts and 200 Ah of capacity. The device’s current draw in this setup is 20 amps (12 x 20 = 240). The theoretical runtime of the parallel system is 200 Ah divided by 20 amps, which is also ten hours.

## Batteries in Series Vs. Parallel: Which Is For You?

Deciding between connecting your batteries in series vs. parallel is often dictated by the needs of the devices you’re powering. For general boat and RV applications wiring batteries in parallel provides the simplest wiring and common voltage, however, for large applications beyond 3000 watts of power, using higher voltage series connections might be best. Now that you understand how each wiring configuration works, you can determine the best option for your needs and proceed with confidence.

## Want To Learn More About Electrical Systems and Lithium Batteries?

We know that building or upgrading an electrical system can be overwhelming, so we’re here to help. Our Reno, Nevada-based sales and customer service team is standing by at (855) 292-2831 to take your questions!

Also, join us on Facebook, Instagram, and YouTube to learn more about how lithium battery systems can power your lifestyle, see how others have built their systems, and gain the confidence to get out there and stay out there.

## 28 thoughts on “What’s The Difference Between Wiring Batteries in Series Vs. Parallel?”

1. Ned says:

Very clear explanation.

2. Mark Consiglio says:

if your boat is a 12volt system do you have to run the batteries in parallel

1. Battle Born Batteries says:

Hi Mark. In a battery system wired in series, you cannot get lower voltages off the battery bank without using a converter. Either all equipment needs to function at the higher voltage or an additional converter is needed to use 12V appliances on the system. Unless you have an additional converter, it would be best to wire your batteries in parallel.

3. Keith Johnson says:

if you wire 2 12volt batteries in series, one 100amp the other 200 amp what amperage will the result have?
same question if wired in parallel?

1. Battle Born Batteries says:

Hi Keith. We do not recommend mixing batteries of different amperages in the same system.

4. Hassan says:

So we get the same run time from 12 volt vs 24 volt but what about the charging time? Won’t the 24 volt system with the two batteries at 100 AH charge quicker than the 12 volt system with 200 AH capacity? The system I will be using charges at 25 Amps.

1. Battle Born Batteries says:

Yes, a 100Ah system being charged at 25 amps will charge quicker than a 200Ah system being charged at 25 amps.

5. Mike Q says:

Excellent explanation – thanks!
Can I assume if I was using a trickle charger for a single battery, I can continue to use that for a parallel setup?

1. Battle Born Batteries says:

Hi Mike! Yes you can, but our batteries don’t require trickle charging.

Parallel and series connection, does the batteries life spend the same if my load is the same?

1. Battle Born Batteries says:

Hi Adam! There are not differing effects on the life of the our batteries depending on how you wire it. Whether you wire in parallel or series, the life span of the battery will remain the same.

7. Steven D says:

Hi, a great explanation of batteries in series/parallel…thanks!

A couple of assumptions and questions, based on your Figure 15 diagram above:
– Assume batteries are, from left to right, 1, 2, 3 and 4
– All batteries are 100ah
– Batteries 1 and 2 together, and 3 and 4 together are serially connected
– Batteries 1 and 2 together, and 3 and 4 together constitute 2x 24v “batteries”

Question 1: If charging positive is connected to positive on battery 1, and charging negative is connected to negative on battery 4, that would create (essentially) 2x 24v 200ah banks connected in parallel. Is that correct?

Question 2: I currently have a 2400VA inverter installed, with 2x 12v 100ah batteries in series for a 24v bank, but want to extend the runtime by adding more batteries. If I am correct, the above should cater for that extension?

Look forward to hearing from you soon…

1. Battle Born Batteries says:

Hi Steven!
Question 1: Yes, that would create a 24V 200Ah bank.
Question 2: Yes, doing that would extend your runtime.

8. John says:

Hello!
In terms of wire length for series and parallel connection should it all be the same length or two diferent lengths as in the picture above?

Thank you!!!

1. Battle Born Batteries says:

Hi John! Due to the angle of the diagram it may appear that the wires are different lengths but they are not. Always be sure that all of your connection cables, whether in series or in parallel, or the same length.

1. John says:

Thank you!! I plan to do the 3rd setting with 4 batteries. What does the green cable stands for?

1. Battle Born Batteries says:

That is the heat enable cable, which would only be relevant if you were using our heated batteries.

9. Happy says:

How do you calculate the charge time of the battery for the series and parallel at 25amps charging current.

1. Battle Born Batteries says:

Take the total amp hours of the bank and divide by the hourly charging rate of your charger to get the total amount of time it will take to charge your bank.

10. Larry says:

If you have four 12v-100a batteries connected in series for 48v can you add a fifth battery in parallel to get 200a?

1. Battle Born Batteries says:

Hi Larry. You cannot do that. For a 48V 200Ah system you would need 8 batteries with 2 sets of 48V series wired together in parallel.

11. Johan Buys says:

Hi, our setup is catamaran that has two large Yanmar V8 and on each I think 120A alternators, that are wired each through its own Blue Sea ACR to house battery bank, when we replace the AGM batteries with your LifePO4 it seems to me we would (1) have a lot more Ah capacity in the house bank that (2) would try and draw a lot more Amps when they see a source. Source could be shore power or generator through a Victron hybrid inverter charger and we will go solar that I think connects via MPPT regulator to the Victron. So key question : would we need a current limiting device installed between the ACR and your batteries??? My concern is overheating the Yanmar alternators when vessel is at idle and batteries are hungry. Thank you in advance

12. Steve says:

Hi, great write up. I have a question.

I want to build up a small system for home only. I want to power a fridge some LED lights and perhaps the TV for blackouts. I just want the longest runtime. Will have solar to charge during the day.

So, I was thinking 48v system and inverter. Or would 12v be enough (4x 200Ah batteries is what I am thinking)
Looking at Victron for the inverter/charger/MPPT

Cheers

Steve

1. Battle Born Batteries says:

Hi Steve! We recommend starting with the battery calculator on our website to get a better idea of exactly how many of our batteries and which size you would need based on your specific application. You can find the battery calculator here: https://battlebornbatteries.com/learn/calculator/ Then our technical sales team would love to help you configure the rest of your system. You can reach them at (855) 292-2831 (M-F 8:00am-4:30pm (PST)) or [email protected].

13. Jeff says:

Thanks for taking time to make this explanation.

14. John woods says:

We have 6/12volt 100ah lithium battle born batteries
If we connect them in series and parallel how many ah do we end up with
We have a 2000watt 24 volt inverter

1. Battle Born Batteries says:

For a 24V system with 6 – 12V 100Ah Battle Born Batteries in series-parallel connection, you would have 24V and 300Ah for your total system.

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